The turkophone Karamanlides were/are Greeks. Mar 19, 2012 14:03:41 GMT -5
Post by Hellenas on Mar 19, 2012 14:03:41 GMT -5
The Karamanlides (Greek: ÊáñáìáíëÞäåò; Turkish: Karamanlılar), or simply Karamanlis (Also referred to as Cappadocian Greeks or Greeks of Cappadocia), are a Greek Orthodox, Turkish-speaking people native to the Karaman and Cappadocia regions of Anatolia. Today, a majority of the population live within Greece, though there is a notable diaspora in Western Europe and North America.
Karamanlides is an umbrella term used to describe all Greek Orthodox Christians in Central Anatolia who had adopted Turkish as their primary language. It is derived from the 13th century Beylik of Karaman. They were the first Turkish kingdom to adopt Turkish as its official language and originally the term would only describe the inhabitants of the town of Karaman or from the region of Karaman. Since there is no significant presence of established Christians in the area, the title is now most often used as a label for the local Muslim inhabitants.
Historically, the Karamanlides adopted and spoke a dialect of the Turkish language. Its vocabulary drew overwhelmingly from Turkic words with only minimal Greek loan words. The language should not be confused with Cappadocian Greek, which was spoken in the same region during the same timeframe, but is derived from the Greek language. It should be noted while their spoken language was Turkish, they employed the Greek alphabet to write it.
The second theory states that Karamanlides are the direct descendants of Greek-speaking Byzantines. Despite their linguistic Turkification, they maintained their Greek Orthodox faith. This theory is also likely as 19th century linguists were able to travel through Karamanli-speaking regions of Cappadocia and document the few remaining Greek words that mostly elderly residents could remember. Hence the process of Turkification was documented.
Nonetheless, in the age of nationalism in the 19th century, most Karamanlides identified with a sense of Greekness as distinct from their fellow Turco-phone neighbours; largely resulting from their adherence to the Greek Orthodox Church.
Many Karamanlides were forced to leave their homes during the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.
"Despite the fact that they had lost all knowledge of their own languages after they had been Turkified,"
Daly, Michael; Bodleian Library (1988). The Turkish legacy: an exhibition of books and manuscripts to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the death of the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Bodleian Library. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-85124-016-6. …a large number of works were printed in Turkish using the Greek and Armenian alphabets. These were intended for those ethnic Greeks and Armenians who, while retaining their religious allegiance to their respective churches, had lost all knowledge of their own languages and had been assimilated linguistically by their Muslim Turkish neighbours. Turcophone Greeks were known as Karamanlides, after the province of Karaman where many of them lived, although there were also large communities in Istanbul and in the Black Sea region, and printed or manuscript works in Turkish using the Greek alphabet are known as Karamanlidika.
"the majority of Karamanlides and many Turkophone Armenians eventually revived their original native tongues."
Gökalp, Ziya (1959). Turkish nationalism and Western civilization: selected essays. Columbia University Press. p. 131. OCLC 407546. In Turkey the Karaman Greeks and many Armenians revived their languages after they had been Turkified.
"While most Cappadocian Greeks had remained Orthodox Christians a significant number of the Karamanlides even converted to Islam during this period."
Panzac, Daniel (1995). Histoire économique et sociale de l'Empire ottoman et de la Turquie (1326-1960): actes du sixième congrès international tenu à Aix-en-Provence du 1er au 4 juillet 1992. Peeters Publishers. pp. 345–6. ISBN 978-90-6831-799-2. They were known as Karaman Greeks (Karamanlilar or Karamaniyari) and had latterly been turcificated during in culture and language during the reign of Murad III. A good number of them had been converted to Islam.
"there were Cappadocian Greeks who only spoke the Turkish language and had given up the use of Greek centuries earlier, known as the Karamanlides."
Nagel Publishers (1968). Turkey. Nagel. p. 615. OCLC 3060049. The Karaman region was for a long time inhabited by Turkish-speaking Orthodox Greeks who wrote Turkish in the Greek script. These Greeks are called Karamanians.